Jargon Buster A-F
Active Directory (AD)
An Active Directory structure is a hierarchical framework of
objects fall into three broad categories: resources (e.g.,
services (e.g., email), and users (user
accounts and groups). The AD provides information on the objects,
organises the objects, controls access and sets security.
Active Server Page (ASP)
A type of HTML page that includes one or more
scripts, (small embedded programs written in VBScript or
JScript), that are processed on a Microsoft web
server to tailor a page before it is sent to the user. ASP
pages are referred to as dynamic pages, since the content will
change according to the user’s request.
A unique name or number used to specify the location of a
computer, website or person’s mailbox on the Internet. Computers
are identified by an “IP address” (e.g. 192.168.100.1), websites
are identified by a “URL” (e.g. www.microsoft.com), and mailboxes
are identified by an “email address” (e.g. firstname.lastname@example.org).
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line - one of the most popular
forms of internet connection currently available, using regular
copper telephone lines for broadband internet
Any software application in which advertising banners are
displayed while the program is running. The authors of these
applications include additional code that delivers the ads, which
can be viewed through pop-up windows or through a bar that appears
on a computer screen. The justification for adware is that it helps
recover programming development cost and helps to hold down the
cost for the user. Adware has been criticised because it usually
includes code that tracks a user's personal information and passes
it on to third parties, without the user's authorisation or
Antivirus software is used to protect computers against known or
potential viruses, and other malicious software.;
A program used to accomplish a specific task, i.e. a word
processing program, a spreadsheet program or an FTP client.
Verifying the identity of a person or computer when it
attempts to access a resource on a network.
Also referred to as data transfer, bandwidth is a measurement of
the amount of information that can be transmitted over a network at
a given time. Bandwidth is often measured in kilobits per second
(Kb/s) or megabits per second (Mb/s).
Used to save the address of a website so it can be quickly and
easily returned to in future. Customers might save your URL as a
bookmark or 'favourite' to save typing the URL each time they
The program that allows you to view web pages. Examples of
widely used browsers are Internet Explorer, Netscape or
CAPEX or Capex (Capital expenditures)
Expenditures creating future benefits. A capital expenditure is
incurred when a business spends money either to buy fixed assets or
to add to the value of an existing fixed asset with a useful life
that extends beyond the taxable year. Capex are used by a company
to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as equipment, property,
or industrial buildings.
Pronounced 'cash’ – a file store used to temporarily store
copies of files locally on a computer to enable quicker access when
the file is next required.
A CGI script allows a program to be run on your server to output
dynamic information and add interactivity to your site. Some
examples of CGI scripts are: hit counters, mail forms, search pages
and guest books. Although Perl is the predominant language because
of its worldwide acceptance, CGI can be written in any number of
programming languages such as, Unix SH, KSH, CSH, and C.
A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server
relationship. For example, the user of a Web browser makes client
requests for pages from servers all over the Web. The browser
itself is a client in its relationship with the server that is
getting and returning the requested page. Another example of a
client would be Outlook.
A cookie is information that a web site puts on your hard disk
so that it can remember something about you at a later time.
Typically, a cookie records your preferences when using a
particular site. They can be used to rotate the banner ads that a
site sends so that it doesn't keep sending the same ad as browse
the site. They can also be used to customise pages for you based on
your browser type or other information you may have provided the
Web site. Web users must agree to let cookies be saved for them,
but, in general, they help Web sites to serve users better.
CRMis a Customer Relationship Management software package.
Cobweb offer Microsoft Dynamics CRM 4.0 which integrates Sales,
Support and Marketing funtionality and is available in a pay
monthly hosted format with no expensive software or hardware
Data Transfer Rate
The speed at which data is transferred. Measured in kilobytes
per second for a CD-ROM drive, in bits per second for a modem, and
in megabytes per second for a hard drive.
Belonging to only one user. For example, a dedicated server is a
computer in a network that is reserved to manage communications
between all other computers in the network. A dedicated line is a
phone line used only to connect to the Internet, rather than one
shared by a modem and a phone.
Dial-up is a form of Internet access via telephone lines. The
user's computer or uses an attached modem connected to a telephone
line to dial into an Internet service provider's (ISP) node to
establish a modem-to-modem link, which is then used to route data
between the user's equipment and hosts on the Internet.
Disk space describes the storage capacity of a disk. It is
usually expressed in Megabytes (MB) or Gigabytes (GB).
Domain Name System (DNS)
The Domain Name System serves as the "phone book" for the
Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP
addresses. For example, www.example.com translates to
A naming system for computers, services, or any resource
participating in the Internet. E.g. http://www.example.com/ is a domain
Domain Name Registration
Domain Name Registration is the process of registering your
domain name (i.e. www.example.com) with an official Internet
registrar. This then prevents anybody else from using the same
domain name as you.
Denial Of Service (DOS)
A method of attacking a server by sending an abnormally high
volume of requests over a network; this slows down the performance
of a server, making it unavailable to users.
Denial of Service attack. A method of attacking a server by
sending an abnormally high volume of requests over a network; this
slows down the performance of a server, making it unavailable to
To retrieve a copy of a file from a host server onto your local
Commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the
buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems
such as the Internet and other computer networks.
Forwards email sent to one email address to another specified
A protective mechanism, usually a combination of hardware and
software, designed to act as a barrier, keeping external networks,
such as the Internet, completely separate from an internal network.
Firewalls forbid access to anyone but individuals authorized to use
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A method for transferring files between two computers over the
Internet. An FTP client is required to make the connection to a FTP
server. It is commonly used to upload files to a web server or
download files from a web site.