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Jargon Buster A-F

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A

Active Directory (AD)

An Active Directory structure is a hierarchical framework of objects. The objects fall into three broad categories: resources (e.g., printers), services (e.g., email), and users (user accounts and groups). The AD provides information on the objects, organises the objects, controls access and sets security.

Active Server Page (ASP)

A type of HTML page that includes one or more scripts, (small embedded programs written in VBScript or JScript), that are processed on a Microsoft web server to tailor a page before it is sent to the user. ASP pages are referred to as dynamic pages, since the content will change according to the user’s request.

Address

A unique name or number used to specify the location of a computer, website or person’s mailbox on the Internet. Computers are identified by an “IP address” (e.g. 192.168.100.1), websites are identified by a “URL” (e.g. www.microsoft.com), and mailboxes are identified by an “email address” (e.g. bill@microsoft.com).

ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line - one of the most popular forms of internet connection currently available, using regular copper telephone lines for broadband internet connectivity.

Adware

Any software application in which advertising banners are displayed while the program is running. The authors of these applications include additional code that delivers the ads, which can be viewed through pop-up windows or through a bar that appears on a computer screen. The justification for adware is that it helps recover programming development cost and helps to hold down the cost for the user. Adware has been criticised because it usually includes code that tracks a user's personal information and passes it on to third parties, without the user's authorisation or knowledge.

Antivirus Software

Antivirus software is used to protect computers against known or potential viruses, and other malicious software.;

Application

A program used to accomplish a specific task, i.e. a word processing program, a spreadsheet program or an FTP client.

Authentication

Verifying the identity of a person or computer when it attempts to access a resource on a network.

B

Bandwidth

Also referred to as data transfer, bandwidth is a measurement of the amount of information that can be transmitted over a network at a given time. Bandwidth is often measured in kilobits per second (Kb/s) or megabits per second (Mb/s).

Bookmark

Used to save the address of a website so it can be quickly and easily returned to in future. Customers might save your URL as a bookmark or 'favourite' to save typing the URL each time they visit.

Browser

The program that allows you to view web pages. Examples of widely used browsers are Internet Explorer, Netscape or Firefox.

C

CAPEX or Capex (Capital expenditures)

Expenditures creating future benefits. A capital expenditure is incurred when a business spends money either to buy fixed assets or to add to the value of an existing fixed asset with a useful life that extends beyond the taxable year. Capex are used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as equipment, property, or industrial buildings.

Cache

Pronounced 'cash’ – a file store used to temporarily store copies of files locally on a computer to enable quicker access when the file is next required.

CGI Script

A CGI script allows a program to be run on your server to output dynamic information and add interactivity to your site. Some examples of CGI scripts are: hit counters, mail forms, search pages and guest books. Although Perl is the predominant language because of its worldwide acceptance, CGI can be written in any number of programming languages such as, Unix SH, KSH, CSH, and C.

Client

A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship. For example, the user of a Web browser makes client requests for pages from servers all over the Web. The browser itself is a client in its relationship with the server that is getting and returning the requested page. Another example of a client would be Outlook.

Cookie

A cookie is information that a web site puts on your hard disk so that it can remember something about you at a later time. Typically, a cookie records your preferences when using a particular site. They can be used to rotate the banner ads that a site sends so that it doesn't keep sending the same ad as browse the site. They can also be used to customise pages for you based on your browser type or other information you may have provided the Web site. Web users must agree to let cookies be saved for them, but, in general, they help Web sites to serve users better.

CRM

CRMis a Customer Relationship Management software package. Cobweb offer Microsoft Dynamics CRM 4.0 which integrates Sales, Support and Marketing funtionality and is available in a pay monthly hosted format with no expensive software or hardware required.

D

Data Transfer

See Bandwidth

Data Transfer Rate

The speed at which data is transferred. Measured in kilobytes per second for a CD-ROM drive, in bits per second for a modem, and in megabytes per second for a hard drive.

Dedicated

Belonging to only one user. For example, a dedicated server is a computer in a network that is reserved to manage communications between all other computers in the network. A dedicated line is a phone line used only to connect to the Internet, rather than one shared by a modem and a phone.

Dial Up

Dial-up is a form of Internet access via telephone lines. The user's computer or uses an attached modem connected to a telephone line to dial into an Internet service provider's (ISP) node to establish a modem-to-modem link, which is then used to route data between the user's equipment and hosts on the Internet.

Disk Space

Disk space describes the storage capacity of a disk. It is usually expressed in Megabytes (MB) or Gigabytes (GB).

Domain Name System (DNS)

The Domain Name System serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, www.example.com translates to 208.77.188.166.

Domain Name

A naming system for computers, services, or any resource participating in the Internet. E.g. http://www.example.com/ is a domain name.

Domain Name Registration

Domain Name Registration is the process of registering your domain name (i.e. www.example.com) with an official Internet registrar. This then prevents anybody else from using the same domain name as you.

Denial Of Service (DOS)

A method of attacking a server by sending an abnormally high volume of requests over a network; this slows down the performance of a server, making it unavailable to users.

DOS Attack

Denial of Service attack. A method of attacking a server by sending an abnormally high volume of requests over a network; this slows down the performance of a server, making it unavailable to any users.

Download

To retrieve a copy of a file from a host server onto your local computer

E

Electronic Commerce

Commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks.

Email Forwarding

Forwards email sent to one email address to another specified email address.

F

Firewall

A protective mechanism, usually a combination of hardware and software, designed to act as a barrier, keeping external networks, such as the Internet, completely separate from an internal network. Firewalls forbid access to anyone but individuals authorized to use the network.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

A method for transferring files between two computers over the Internet. An FTP client is required to make the connection to a FTP server. It is commonly used to upload files to a web server or download files from a web site.

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